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Frequently Asked Questions

What is polo and how is it played?

Polo is a sport that is played on horseback. It involves two teams, each with four players, who try to score goals by hitting a small ball with long-handled mallets. The objective is to hit the ball into the opposing team’s goal while trying to defend their own.

Polo is played on a large grass field that is about the size of nine football fields. The field is divided into two halves, each with a goal at either end. The game is typically divided into six to eight periods, or “chukkas,” each lasting seven minutes. Players switch horses after each chukka to give the horses a rest.

The game begins with a throw-in, where the ball is thrown between the two teams. From there, players try to gain control of the ball and advance it down the field by hitting it with their mallets. Players can bump into each other to try to knock them off course or steal the ball, but dangerous riding or unsportsmanlike conduct is penalized.

The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins. Polo is a fast-paced and exciting sport that requires skill, strategy, and teamwork.

What kind of equipment do I need to play polo?

  • Polo Mallets: Long-handled mallets made of bamboo or a similar material, which are used to hit the ball.
  • Polo Balls: Small white plastic or wooden balls that are hit with the mallets.
  • Helmets: Protective headgear that must be worn by all players.
  • Boots: Specialized riding boots that provide support and protection for the player’s feet and ankles.
  • Knee Pads: Protective padding worn over the knees to prevent injury.
  • Gloves: Leather gloves that provide grip and protection for the player’s hands.
  • Polo Shirts: Lightweight, breathable shirts designed for polo players.
  • Riding Breeches: Tight-fitting pants that provide comfort and freedom of movement while riding.
  • Spurs: Metal or plastic attachments worn on the boots that are used to control the horse.
  • Whips: Short, flexible sticks used to encourage the horse to move or change direction.
  • Saddle: Specialized saddles designed for polo players, which provide extra support and stability.
  • Goggles: Optional protective eyewear that can be worn to prevent eye injuries.

These are the basic pieces of equipment needed to play polo, but some players may choose to wear additional protective gear or clothing depending on their individual preferences and needs.


What kind of physical fitness is required for playing polo?

Fitness for polo,

Playing polo requires a high level of physical fitness and athleticism, as it is a fast-paced, physically demanding sport that requires strength, agility, endurance, and balance. Some of the physical fitness requirements for playing polo include:


  • Cardiovascular Endurance: Polo players need to have excellent cardiovascular endurance to be able to ride their horses at high speeds for extended periods of time.


  • Strength: Polo players need to have good upper body strength to be able to swing the mallet and hit the ball with power. They also need to have strong leg muscles to be able to control their horse and maintain balance while riding.


  • Agility: Polo players need to be able to quickly change direction and maneuver their horse in response to the movements of the other players and the ball.


  • Balance: Polo players need to have good balance and coordination to be able to ride their horse while swinging the mallet and hitting the ball.


  • Flexibility: Polo players need to be flexible in order to maintain good posture while riding and to be able to reach and hit the ball from different angles.


  • Reaction Time: Polo players need to have quick reflexes and good reaction time in order to respond to the movements of the other players and the ball.

Polo Valley offers comprehensive physical training sessions during the polo programmes. The physical training is designed to help polo players achieve peak physical fitness, which is essential for success on the polo field.

The physical training sessions are conducted by experienced and certified trainers, who work with the players to develop a personalized training plan. The trainers use a range of techniques and exercises, including cardio, strength training, yoga, and Pilates, to help players achieve their fitness goals.

What are the different positions in polo?

There are four primary positions in polo, each with a specific role to play on the field:

  1. Number 1 (Attack): The Number 1 player is typically the most offensive player on the team. They are responsible for scoring goals and setting up plays for their teammates. They must be skilled in hitting the ball at high speeds while riding at full gallop.
  2. Number 2 (Forward): The Number 2 player is a versatile player who can play both offense and defense. They are responsible for carrying the ball up the field and passing it to their teammates. They also defend their team’s goal and can intercept passes from the opposing team.
  3. Number 3 (Defense): The Number 3 player is the primary defender on the team. They are responsible for preventing the opposing team from scoring goals and can also carry the ball up the field to initiate plays for their team.
  4. Back (Defense): The Back is the final line of defense on the team. They are responsible for defending their team’s goal and clearing the ball out of their defensive zone. They also provide support for their teammates and can initiate counter attacks against the opposing team.

Each player’s role can vary depending on the strategy of the team, and players may switch positions throughout the game. The team’s captain is typically the most experienced player on the team and is responsible for directing the team’s strategy and making substitutions as needed.

How do I care for a polo pony?

Caring for a polo pony involves several key responsibilities to ensure that your horse remains healthy, happy, and fit for polo. Here are some tips on how to care for a polo pony:

  1. Feeding: Proper nutrition is essential for the health and performance of a polo pony. Horses should have access to clean water at all times, and their diet should include high-quality hay or pasture, as well as a balanced feed that is appropriate for their age, weight, and activity level. Feeding should be done in small, frequent meals to prevent digestive problems.
  2. Grooming: Grooming is an essential part of horse care that helps to maintain a horse’s coat, skin, and overall health. Regular grooming should include brushing, currying, hoof cleaning, and bathing as needed. Grooming can also help you to identify any potential health issues, such as injuries or skin problems.
  3. Exercise: Polo ponies require regular exercise to stay fit and healthy. Exercise should include a combination of riding, lunging, and turnout. Horses should be ridden at least three to four times a week, and turnout should be provided in a safe and secure area.
  4. Veterinary care: Regular veterinary care is essential for the health and well-being of a polo pony. Horses should receive regular vaccinations, dental care, and deworming. They should also be examined by a veterinarian at least once a year for a general health checkup.
  5. Shoeing: Proper shoeing is important to maintain the health and performance of a polo pony. Horses should be shod every six to eight weeks by a qualified farrier. Shoeing can help prevent injuries and improve the horse’s performance on the field.
  6. Rest and recovery: Like athletes, polo ponies need time to rest and recover between matches and practices. Horses should be provided with adequate rest time, including time for turnout and relaxation. They should also have access to clean, comfortable bedding and a sheltered area.

Overall, caring for a polo pony requires dedication, patience, and attention to detail. By providing proper nutrition, grooming, exercise, veterinary care, shoeing, and rest, you can ensure that your polo pony remains healthy and happy for many years to come.


At Polo Valley, we understand the importance of personalized care for each horse, and we work closely with owners to develop a customized care plan that meets the specific needs of each horse. Our team is dedicated to providing exceptional care and attention to detail, so you can be confident that your horse is in good hands.

We offer our services and experience in managing the welfare, grooming and general care of polo ponies looking after their every need, whilst stabled in our livery barn.

Discover more about our livery service.

What are the basic rules of polo?

  • Teams: Polo is played with two teams, each consisting of four players.
  • Field: The playing field is usually 300 yards long by 160 yards wide, with a goal post at each end.
  • Chukkas: The game is divided into periods called chukkas, with each chukka lasting seven and a half minutes. There is usually a break of a few minutes between chukkas to allow players to rest and switch horses.
  • Equipment: Players use long-handled mallets made of bamboo or a similar material to hit a small white plastic or wooden ball. They wear helmets, boots, and knee pads for protection.
  • Scoring: A goal is scored when a player hits the ball between the opposing team’s goal posts.
  • Right of way: The player who has the ball has the right of way, and other players must not cross in front of or block the path of the player with the ball.
  • Fouls: Players are penalized for dangerous riding, hitting another player or horse with the mallet, or any unsportsmanlike conduct.
  • Switching horses: Players must switch horses after each chukka to prevent exhaustion and injury to the animals.
  • These are the basic rules of polo, but there are many additional rules that govern the sport. It’s important for players to have a good understanding of the rules and to play with good sportsmanship to ensure a safe and enjoyable game for everyone involved.

How many players in Polo?

Polo is played with two teams, each consisting of four players, for a total of eight players on the field. Each player has a specific position and role on the team, and teamwork and communication are key to success in the sport. The four positions in polo are number one, number two, number three, and back, with each player responsible for different aspects of the game such as offense, defense, and ball control.

The four positions in polo are:

Number One: This is the most forward position on the team, and the player in this position is responsible for scoring goals. They usually have the most speed and maneuverability, and they need to be able to quickly change direction and control the ball.


Number Two: The player in this position is responsible for supporting the number one player and helping to create scoring opportunities. They need to be able to hit the ball accurately and with power, and they also need to be able to defend against the opposing team.


Number Three: The number three player is typically the team captain and the most experienced player on the team. They are responsible for directing the play, coordinating the team’s strategy, and providing defensive support. They need to be able to anticipate the movements of the other players and quickly react to changing situations.


Back: The back player is responsible for defense, and they are usually the last line of defense before the opposing team reaches their own goal. They need to be able to accurately hit the ball out of the defensive zone and clear it to their own teammates. They also need to be able to ride their horse at a high speed while maintaining control and balance.


Each player has a specific role and set of responsibilities, but teamwork and communication are key to success in polo. Players need to work together and support each other in order to effectively compete against the opposing team.

What is the cost of playing polo?

The cost of playing polo can vary widely depending on several factors such as location, level of play, frequency of play, horse ownership, and equipment. Here are some of the common costs associated with playing polo:

  1. Polo Lessons: Beginners may need to take lessons to learn the basic riding skills and rules of the game. Polo lessons can be around €200 per hour depending on the location and instructor.
  2. Horse Ownership: Most polo players own their own horses or lease them for the season. The cost of owning a polo horse can vary depending on the breed, age, and training of the horse. A well-trained polo pony can cost anywhere from €5,000 to €50,000 or more.
  3. Horse Care: Horse care includes veterinary care, feeding, stabling, and grooming. The cost of horse care can vary depending on the location and level of care required. The cost can range from a few hundred to several thousand dollars per month.
  4. Equipment: Polo players need a range of specialized equipment, including mallets, helmets, boots, kneepads, and gloves. The cost of equipment can vary depending on the quality and brand. A full set of polo gear can cost anywhere from €1,500 to €5,000 or more.
  5. Club Membership: Many polo clubs require membership fees, which can range from a few hundred to several thousand euros per year depending on the location and amenities.

Find out more about our lessons and programmes

How can I learn to ride a horse for polo?

Learning to ride a horse for polo requires a combination of riding skills, polo-specific techniques, and an understanding of the rules and strategy of the game. Here are the steps to take to learn to ride a horse for polo:

  1. Riding lessons: If you are new to horse riding, you will start by taking riding lessons from our qualified instructors. Learn the basics of riding, including how to mount, dismount, steer, and control the horse’s speed and direction.
  2. Learn the rules and strategy: You will receive theoretical lessons on the rules and strategy of polo, so that you can understand the game and the role of each player on the field. 
  3. Practice on our wooden horse: Practicing on a wooden horse will help you develop your polo-specific skills, such as hitting the ball and positioning yourself on the field.
  4. Practice on a horse: Once you feel comfortable on the wooden horse, start practicing on a horse. Our instructors will focus on developing your riding skills and polo-specific techniques, such as hitting the ball while riding at speed.
  5. Attend polo clinics and tournaments: You will be able to be part of polo clinics and tournaments to learn from experienced polo players and to gain more experience playing the game.

Remember that learning to ride a horse for polo takes time and practice. Be patient, stay focused, and enjoy the process of learning this exciting and challenging sport at Polo Valley.

Find out more about our lessons and programmes

How much is a polo pony?

The cost of a polo pony in euros can vary depending on various factors, such as the age, breed, skill level, training, and performance of the horse, but on average, the price of a polo pony can range from €4,000 to €40,000 or more. For young and untrained horses, the cost can range from €3,500 to €12,500, while trained polo ponies can range from €12,500 to €41,500 or more. Highly trained and top-performing polo ponies can cost over €80,000 or more. It’s important to keep in mind that ongoing expenses such as stabling, feed, veterinary care, and training will also need to be considered when determining the total cost of owning a polo pony.

Discover our selection of polo ponies for sale and find your winning partner.

With the latest selection of ponies now available to try, get in touch today to trial over 20 polo ponies for sale.

If you choose Polo Valley to improve your game or to start learning polo, you will be able to enjoy:

  1. World-class facilities: including a state-of-the-art polo field, a training arena, and a clubhouse. The club has 50 stables, with horses suitable for players of all levels.
  2. Expert coaching: Polo Valley has a team of experienced and qualified coaches who can provide personalized coaching to players of all levels, from beginners to professionals. The coaching team includes polo champions and high-goal players who can provide valuable insights and techniques to improve your game.
  3. Customized polo programs: Polo Valley offers customized polo programs tailored to the needs of each player. Whether you want to improve your riding skills, learn polo-specific techniques, or participate in tournaments, the club can provide a program that meets your goals and interests.
  4. Beautiful location: Polo Valley is located in the stunning Andalusian countryside, surrounded by rolling hills, olive groves, and vineyards. Sotogrande is a distinctive destination that provides a serene and peaceful environment for players to relax and unwind between polo sessions.
  5. Excellent customer service: The Polo Valley team is dedicated to providing excellent customer service and ensuring that each player has a memorable and enjoyable experience at the club. The team can provide assistance with travel arrangements, accommodation, and other logistical details to make your stay as comfortable and stress-free as possible.

Discover our prices for polo lessons, programmes and packages.